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2012 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 284 words || 
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1. Bressler, Michael. "Congress at War: How Congress Goes Public to Influence Presidential War Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 12, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p544497_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In considering relations between the president and Congress on foreign policy, two bodies of literature stand out. One investigates the extent to which foreign policy is subject to partisanship, with congressional voting behavior as the primary indicator of the levels of cooperation or dissent. The other examines how presidents use the media to frame foreign policy debates in ways that will allow them to win over public opinion and in the process weaken congressional opposition to their plans. Much less attention has been paid, however, to how members of Congress utilize the media to influence foreign policy. Recently, scholars specializing in Congress and political communication have begun to examine how members of Congress use the media to influence policy. This small but growing literature identifies who in Congress is “going public” to promote or oppose certain policies, examines how parties in Congress organize to make the most effective use of the media, and investigates the strategies media entrepreneurs in Congress employ to achieve their aims. Most of this work either focuses on domestic politics or doesn’t differentiate between domestic and foreign policy. Scholars have long viewed American foreign policy making as an “invitation to struggle” between the executive and legislative branches. The Vietnam and Iraq wars provide an opportunity to examine how members of Congress have gone public in an area of policy that is often assumed to belong to the president as commander in chief. Through a content analysis of public congressional speech during these two wars, this paper investigates who in Congress went public to influence the course and content of presidential war policy.

2007 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 30 words || 
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2. Kleinerman, Benjamin. "Congress, the Courts and Executive Power: Why Congress is not the Most Dangerous Branch" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, <Not Available>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p142393_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines the growing unwillingness on the part of Congress to assert constitutional authority to check the president. It asks whether judicial activism has softened the congressional will.

2015 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 216 words || 
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3. Cardenas, Theresa. "The Tweet Delete of Congress: Congress and Deleted Post on Twitter" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 15, 2015 <Not Available>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p951080_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since 2006, increasingly more politicians have joined, and are active on, social media networks, in order to reach out to constituents. However, politicians, such as Anthony Weiner, have started to find themselves in the middle of Twitter scandals and criticism, since their posts are openly available to the public. These ramifications may be leading politicians to delete their tweets, but thanks to the Sunlight Foundation and it’s website Politwoops deleted tweets by politicians are now archived and ripe for political research. This raises the question: Which members of Congress are deleting tweets and why? Thus, I conduct the first known qualitative study on Congress and deleted tweets, to determine what members may be trying to delete. An empirical analysis on raw data, including 500 deleted tweets by Congress members, was used to discover which posts, and by which members, are deleted more often. I hypothesize that Congress members, specifically Republican Senators, are more likely to delete negative tweets, such as post that are unprofessional, against their constituents’ views, or contain controversial issues, in order to ensure public support and avoid backlash. However, my findings, so far, have found that deleted tweets are more likely to be legislative in nature, rather than negative posts that could cost a member public support.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 9417 words || 
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4. Vinson, C. Danielle. and Remmel, Megan. "Congress Learns to Go Public: How Congress Uses the Media to Respond to the President" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p209366_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Going public has long been a tool of the president, but over the last several decades, members of Congress have increasingly employed it for their own purposes. Using content analysis of national news sources to study how congressional members responded to three specific presidential calls to reform Social Security (1977, 1981, and 2005) and additional content analysis of the New York Times for select periods from 1977-2001, this paper attempts to understand more about how members of Congress go public to respond to the president and how increasing polarization in Congress has affected this. We find evidence that going public in Congress has increased at least on issues that are high priorities, that which congressional members go public has changed over time and with the political environment, and that the overall tone of members’ public responses to the president has become more partisan. Our findings suggest implications for the balance of power between Congress and the president and their ability to work together to make policy.

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