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2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Pitzer, Heidi. "Teachers’ Deficit Constructions of Urban Students: Accounting for Student Needs Not Rooted in Deficit Discourse" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1255555_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Previous research demonstrates that deficit thinking—a framework that blames poor urban youth and youth of color for school problems, that constructs them as objects in need of control and correction, and that misrepresents their families and communities—predominates in urban schools. This multi-sited ethnography traces how urban teachers negotiated deficit discourse in two urban educational contexts: Teach For America (TFA), a national program that recruits college graduates to teach in poor schools, and Project Voice, a small, university-based research project that aimed to develop a model for adults to collaborate with urban students to improve their schools. Qualitative data include in-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 13 urban teachers. Findings indicate that despite the prevalence of the deficit discourse and its power to construct urban students as problems, teachers did not always construct urban students themselves as deficient. Urban teachers sometimes showed signs of understanding students’ needs or apparent lack outside of a deficit framework. Deficit discourse was not all-encompassing, and some teachers resisted it, but without the language to talk about social inequality, teachers often relied on deficit discourse.

2005 - International Studies Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 15856 words || 
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2. Moon, Bruce. "Deficits in Trade, Deficits in Development?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p70183_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Trade liberalization represents hope for the poorest nations to alleviate poverty, but if the expansion of trade volumes brings benefits, the accompanying expansion of trade deficits brings dangers. This study confirms the negative consequences of trade deficits for growth prospects via several different models culled from the literatures on trade, debt, and capital flows. It explores the non-linearities and interaction effects associated with various theories, finding support for some of them.
The paper is centered around statistical analyses that reveal the effect of trade deficits, but it is framed by the huge U.S. trade deficit that looms in the background.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 407 words || 
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3. Kingdon, Danielle., Cardoso, Christopher. and McGrath, Jennifer. "Executive Function Deficits in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960789_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Background: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) both display impairments in executive function, and differential diagnosis of these two clinical groups is often difficult, especially when information about prenatal alcohol exposure is unavailable.

Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the specificity of executive functioning deficits to distinguish children with FASD (with and without dysmorphy) from typically developing children and children with ADHD.

Data Sources: A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed and PsychInfo electronic databases from January 1972 to April 2013.

Study Selection: Studies comparing the executive function performance of FASD children aged 0-18 years with ADHD and control groups.

Data Extraction: Hedges’ g effect sizes were calculated from the raw data (means and standard deviations) whenever available and from test statistics when raw data was not reported. Random effects meta-analytic models were performed using the metafor package for the statistical program R.

Results: The search yielded 95 relevant studies, 48 of which met inclusion criteria (FASD: N=1,944; ADHD: N=433; typical controls: N=1,929). Children with FASD showed the strongest and most consistent deficits on measures of fluency, planning and set-shifting when compared to typically developing children (Hedges’ g=-0.77 to -0.94) and children with ADHD (Hedges’ g=-0.29 to -0.72). Compared to typically developing children, FASD was associated with moderate impairments on measures of inhibition, vigilance and working memory, whereas FASD and ADHD were not differentiated on these measures. Moderation analysis showed that executive dysfunction was observed in FASD, even when controlling for age, sex, intellectual functioning and presence of dysmorphy.

Conclusions: The findings of the present meta-analysis provide support for an executive profile of relative strengths (i.e., vigilance and inhibition) and deficits (fluency, planning, and set-shifting) in FASD. This profile of deficits can be differentiated from both typically developing controls and children with ADHD. Executive dysfunction was observed in FASD, even when controlling for age, sex, intellectual functioning, and presence of dysmorphy, which provides further evidence for the specificity of executive function as a marker for FASD. Although at present evidence for the diagnostic value of neuropsychological tests is lacking, tests of fluency, planning and set-shifting might play a key role in more precisely defining the clinical phenotype of FASD and differentiating this disorder from ADHD. These efforts to improve our understanding of the underlying neurobiology of FASD have the potential to both improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and to aid in the development of targeted and specialized interventions.

2004 - International Studies Association Words: 199 words || 
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4. Dorff, Robert. "The Changing Face of Security: Addressing The Good Governance Deficit" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2017-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p74226_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, followed by the subsequent military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, have heightened awareness of and interest in so-called failed and failing states. Although it came later than many would have preferred, this awareness has helped to broaden the security debate and has forced a reluctant policy community in the U.S. to recognize the changing face of security. Whether we choose to call it nation-building, post-conflict reconstruction, or something else, the point is simply that we can no longer view security in strictly military terms, and we must engage the full array of national and international elements of power in pursuit of security. Economic, political/diplomatic, and informational tools must be coordinated and focused on the task of building an international community of legitimate governance, and it must be done in an increasingly interdependent world and amidst an expanding number of global challenges. This paper addresses the changing face of security in the context of the challenges to legitimate and effective governance, arguing that a more comprehensive approach to expanding good governance is an appropriate and necessary grand strategy for achieving greater international security.

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