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2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 148 words || 
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1. Schneider, Jacqueline. "The Market Reduction Approach:The Application of a Crime Reduction Strategy to Global Theft-related Problems" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 13, 2007 <Not Available>. 2017-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p202241_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The Market Reduction Approach is a crime reduction strategy that aims to reduce and disrupt stolen goods markets, in addition to reducing theft levels by making it more risky for thieves to sell stolen property. Initially, the concept has shown promise in England with regard to reducing traditional forms of property-related crime, as well as disrupting certain types of stolen goods markets. Additionally, strides have been made in using property as a unit of analysis rather than traditional foci of attention when examining crime patterns and designing tactical responses. In line with the 2005 United Nations’ program of work on transnational and organized crime, this concept paper uses the specific example of the illegal trade of endangered flora and fauna in order to explore how the Market Reduction Approach can be expanded beyond its current use into the realm of non-traditional types of property crime.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 10 pages || Words: 3108 words || 
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2. Norwood, Carolette. "Women's Status, HIV Risk Reduction Strategies and Microcredit Participation: A Mixed-Method Evaluation of the Effects of Microcredit Participation in Yaoundé, Cameroon" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2017-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p94520_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Microcredit is perhaps the most prominent development policy embraced today. In fact, the United Nations has proclaimed the year 2005, the year of microcredit. Microcredit advocates boldly claim that participation in the programs can effectively reduce poverty and empowerment women in the third world. Recently, promoters have also been touting the usefulness of these programs in raising awareness about HIV and AIDS, and as a means of reducing the spread of the HIV virus through prevention education. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, this study assesses the independent effects of microcredit participation on HIV prevention and risk reduction strategies, women’s empowerment status and family planning attitudes and practices in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Additionally, this study evaluates local meaning and perception of women’s empowerment and family planning, the usefulness of microcredit programs, and barriers to HIV prevention.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 8372 words || 
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3. Grushina, Yana. "The Role of Uncertainty Reduction in Student-Tutor Interaction: Relationship Building as Key Determinant of Success" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2017-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p13900_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This report will discuss the dyadic interaction between tutors and English as Second Language (ESL) students in the Writing Lab of a large midwestern university. This qualitative study used observation and interviews to identify patterns in communicative behaviors of students and tutors. The findings were explicated using Berger and Calabrese’s (1975) Uncertainty Reduction Theory, and they included the following: a) ESL students’ initial anxiety can be alleviated by “small talk”; b) ESL students experience uncertainty upon subsequent visits; c) when the tutor successfully reduces students’ anxieties, the tutor is perceived as “effective”; and d) “effective” tutors are well-liked by students, prompting follow-up appointments. This report also provides a literature review and suggestions for application and future research.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 10360 words || 
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4. Yoo, Jina. "“Why Should I Trust You?” The Path From Information Valence to Uncertainty Reduction, Cognitive Trust, and Behavioral Trust." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2017-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p14397_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This research examined how valence of information affects relational outcomes in initial interaction. The relational outcomes of interest here are uncertainty reduction and the states of both cognitive trust and behavioral trust. Uncertainty level and the cognitive state of trust should act as the preconditions for behavioral trust, as behavioral trust involves actual risk in a vulnerable situation rather than simply a perception of the other individual. In order to examine the causal relationship between information valence and multi-dimensional aspects of trust, an experiment was conducted. Participants were randomly given either positively or negatively valenced information about a confederate and were asked to fill out questionnaires assessing their uncertainty level and cognitive state of trust toward the confederate. The Prisoner’s Dilemma game was used to operationalize the construct of behavioral trust. The results indicated that valence of information had a significant effect on the cognitive level of trust, especially, perceived trustworthiness. However, information valence did not have a significant effect on predicting behavioral trust, except for the positively valenced information condition. The path model indicated that both uncertainty reduction level and perceived trustworthiness were significant predictors for behavioral trust when the individual was exposed to a piece of positive information about the partner.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 8220 words || 
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5. Shiffman, Jeremy. "The State of Political Priority for Maternal Mortality Reduction in Nigeria and India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2017-12-11 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p98731_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Each year between 500,000 and 600,000 women die due to complications from childbirth, making this the leading cause of death globally for adult women of reproductive age. In 1987 a transnational safe motherhood network emerged, linking UN agencies, the World Bank, international non-governmental organizations and states from both the North and the South in an effort to reduce global maternal mortality levels.Since then, a handful of Southern states have embraced the cause and succeeded in lowering maternal death levels significantly, while many more have ignored the issue completely. This paper explores reasons behind this cross-national variance in state behavior through case studies of India and Nigeria, the two countries of the world with the largest numbers of maternal death in childbirth who together constitute one-quarter of the world?s total. The study focuses on the interactions between international movement leaders and domestic political and social actors in each of these two nation-states. It is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with the global leaders of the safe motherhood movement, as well as research on safe motherhood conducted in each of these two countries.

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