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2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 750 words || 
1. Locke, Steven. and Ovando, Carlos. "Educational opportunities & remittances in south – south migration: A tale of two journeys – two outcomes." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Mar 10, 2013 <Not Available>. 2017-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Ethnographic researchers of south-south migration have documented racism, abject poverty, violations of human rights, and a lack of legal protection (Bartlett. 2012; Lee, 2010). Others have found that despite smaller remittances than from south-north immigration, this trend has significantly benefited sending countries (Edwards & Ureta, 2003; Hass, 2007). These latter researchers also note that south-south migration has increased educational opportunities and opportunities for the growth of human capital.
The consequences of south-south migration have caused a ripple effect that has impacted global economic and political relationships. There is a need to understand the dynamic impact on the economic circumstances of both sending and receiving countries and the role of education in the development of immigrant human capital. This research examines the role of economic and social remittance, its impact on educational attainment, and how migrant Diasporas have the potential for being a powerful force that can stimulate and contribute to the development of human capital for sending countries.

The reasons surrounding migration differ greatly between countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Reasons range from failed policies in countries of origins to the consequences of globalization with its subsequent push and pull forces that have precipitated migration and industrialization among many Latin American countries. Remittances for many of the least developed countries have become the principal source of foreign capital, an important link to global markets, and promises to be a major force in economic development through the transfer of resources and ideas back to sending countries. Remittances have also contributed to educational opportunities for immigrants. In a review of micro studies Son (2010) found that the accumulation of human capital through access to educational opportunities was a significant contributor to the overall output and growth of an economy especially for developing countries.
While educational benefits from South-South migration can contribute to the economic development of sending countries, Son (2010) cautions that educational benefits may not lead to economic growth and reduction of poverty if the domestic labor market is not taken into account. She notes that the skills taught in the education system must match those needed to produce goods and services for there to be economic growth in developing countries.

Modes of Inquiry

We utilize a case study approach to investigation and analyze the connections between south-south immigration and the development of human capital among Nicaraguans in Costa Rica. The case study is important for examining the dynamics of a particular phenomenon and can be useful for generating theory (Eisenhardt, 1989). This approach provides what Merriam argues is useful for investigating the complexity of immigration and the multiple variables important for understanding human development. The rich description provided by the interpretive case study served to support and challenge theoretical assumptions and connections between the economics of immigrant remittances and human capital development.

Data Sources and Analysis
Data was collected in recent interviews with two females who had graduated in 2011 with B.A. degrees from universities in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Both had been brought to Costa Rica when they were around 9 years old by their unskilled Nicaraguan mothers. In both cases the mothers had migrated to Costa Rica in search of economic opportunities. Their daughters attended elementary and high school in Costa Rica and eventually one returned to Nicaragua to attend college while the other remained in Costa Rica. Interviews were translated, transcribed and analyzed for recurring themes (Silverman, 2010). Salient themes were contextualized with published statistics and Costa Rican and Nicaraguan economic histories (Molina, 2011; Walker & Wade, 2010). These contexts were analyzed through a lens of human capital development with particular attention paid to the connections between immigrant remittances, educational opportunities, and economic benefits.
Conclusions and Results
Our data reveals that despite hardships, remittances and subsequent educational opportunities from south-south immigration can sometimes offer significant prospects for human capital development for both those who stay in the host countries and for those who decided to return. This was especially true for females from rural settings who had traditional domestic roles in Nicaragua and few opportunities for post-elementary education or careers outside the home.
Scholarly Significance
Educational scholars and development agencies need to rethink and reconsider the contributions of educational attainment in host countries by immigrants. Rather than viewing south-south immigration as a drain of human resources that leads to economic stagnation and dependency the phenomena holds the potential for what Castles & Delgado-Wise (2007) refer to as “brain circulation” that can benefit both the host and sending countries. South-South immigration if supported correctly.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 207 words || 
2. Warner, Jessica. and Latessa, Edward. "A Tale of Two States: Comparing the Organizational Context of Two State Prison Systems" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2017-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Implementation of new policy and procedure based on the “what works” literature has been widespread and ongoing. Unfortunately, the transfer of knowledge and research from scholar to practitioner has not been as strong and successful as many would hope (Taxman & Belenko, 2012). Findings from routine projects and implementation of identified best practices in real-world settings tend to be weaker than when demonstration projects are completed (Lipsey, 1999, 2001). This difference in outcomes suggests that there may be factors relevant to successful implementation that have been unknown, forgotten, or even ignored. One of those factors is the organizational context of the agency that is undergoing implementation. Regarding context, there is concern that staff attitudes and perceptions of leadership, change, treatment, as well as agency needs could negatively impact, even derail, implementation efforts and lead to wasted time and resources (Taxman & Belenko, 2012). This presentation will highlight the findings of study that utilized the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey to compare the organizational context of two state prison systems. Special attention is paid to the differences in staff perception by position (i.e., are line staff more cynical regarding change than administration?) Implications for future implementation projects will be discussed.

2016 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 227 words || 
3. Lee, Seung-Ah. "Two Reformists, Two Utopias in Choson" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Mar 31, 2016 <Not Available>. 2017-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A utopia is the term coined by Sir Thomas More referring to any non-existent society. However, the term is used loosely depicting the ideal society that is better than contemporary society. During the Chosŏn period, people also dreamt of a utopia in search of a better society. In often cases, their utopia was the hidden village that Tao Yuanming described in his classic writing, The Peach Blossom Spring (Taohua yuan ji) that was ideal existence in harmony without any worries and anxieties. While the Peach Blossom Spring was used as an exemplar depicting utopia in literary writings and paintings during Chosŏn, two reformists Hŏ Kyun and Pak Chiwŏn described two different utopias in their fictional writings, Tale of Hong Kiltong (Hong Kiltong chŏn) and Story of Master Hŏ (Hosaeng chŏn).
Both Hŏ Kyun and Pak Chiwŏn were scholars, philosophers, politicians and writers in 16th and 18th centuries respectively. Furthermore, they were known as reformists who agitated reforms in dissatisfaction with irrationality of the society. Interestingly, both of them wrote fictions suggesting utopias. In this paper, I will investigate two fictional writings to determine utopias that two reformists dreamt of in relation of their philosophical and political interests. In doing so, I would like to argue that utopias that they suggested existed within a frame of Confucian social system although both of them were considered to be reformists.

2006 - American Political Science Association Words: unavailable || 
4. Dowding, Keith. "The ???Two Exit, Two Voice, and Loyalty Model???: A Test with Survey Data on Local Services in the UK" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2017-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding

2006 - American Society of Criminology (ASC) Words: 153 words || 
5. Burrow, John. and Kurlychek, Megan. "A Tale of Two Cities: An Examination of Waiver Philosophies and Trends in Two Counties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 01, 2006 <Not Available>. 2017-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Over the past few decades, various forms of waiver have become increasingly used by the states provided that juvenile offenders meet a certain age threshold or commit certain enumerated crimes. Notwithstanding the extensive research that has been conducted in jurisdictions such as Florida, little is known about actual waiver practices in other states. This study is an attempt to shed some light on this subject in a southern state. First, this study will examine the impact of race as well as other legal and extra-legal factors that may influence the prosecutor’s decision to file a waiver motion. Second, this study will examine the impact of legal and extra-legal factors that may influence the final determination to either grant or deny the waiver motion. This study represents an important step in the ongoing efforts to address concerns about the manner in which waiver policies are applied and implemented at the state and county level.

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