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2006 - American Society of Criminology (ASC) Words: 140 words || 
1. Zhang, Sheldon. and Chin, Ko-lin. "“Ants Moving Houses”: The Social Organization of Heroin Trafficking in the China-Burma Border Areas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines the patterns and social organization of cross-border drug trafficking in the China-Burma border areas. The authors conducted a self-administered survey with 578 inmates in China who were serving prison terms for drug dealing-related offenses, mainly for trafficking, transporting, or distributing heroin. We concluded that the majority of drug offenders arrested by the Chinese authorities and currently serving long prison terms are low-level drug couriers or mules. A large army of mules are hired by high-level drug dealers to saturate the Chinese heroin market by repeatedly moving a few hundred grams of heroin per mule per trip. In China, this method is called “ants moving houses.” These male and female “ants,” mostly poor peasants from some of the most impoverished areas of China, are heavily punished by the Chinese authorities for their offenses.

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