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2005 - American Society of Criminology Words: 251 words || 
1. Uzoaba, Julius. "A Comparative Study of the Incarceration Rates of Racial Minorities in Four Common Law Countries of Canada, US, England and Wales, and Australia." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Royal York, Toronto, <Not Available>. 2019-01-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: There is a common disturbing thread that runs throughout the criminal justice system of these countries where 'race' is regarded as a relevant difference between individuals. The incarceration rates per 100,000 adult population of the Natives in Canada mirror very closely the incarceration rates per 100,000 adult population of Australian Aborigines. On the other hand, the incarceration rates per 100,000 adult African Americans are markedly similar to the incarceration rates per 100,000 adult Blacks in England and Wales. There is considerable disagreement among social scientists as to the causes of the disparities in the rates of imprisonment of racial minorities in these countries that often result in their over-representation in the criminal justice system. While some view the racial disproportion as a result of differential involvement in crime by racial minorities, others are of the strong opinion that the causes are embedded in the operations of economic, social and criminal justice systems of these countries. The percentages of minorities under correctional control and supervision in these countries in no way reflect their makeup in the civilian population. Currently in Canada, the Natives constitute about 3% of the general population but 17% of prisoners in the federal system. In Australia, the Natives currently make up 2% of the population but 20% of all prisoners. African Americans currently make up 13% of the US population and a staggering 46% of the sentenced prisoners. In England and Wales (1999/2000), Blacks comprised only 2% of the general population but 10.2% of the prison population

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