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2006 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 253 words || 
1. Dugan, B. DeeAnn., Gettman, David. and Williams, Heather. "Moderating Effect of Religious Background and Behavior on the Impact of a Pharmacy Professionalism Course" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California, USA, Jul 05, 2006 <Not Available>. 2018-05-21 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a first year professionalism course on student responses to an instrument assessing four different domains of professionalism. The secondary objective was to assess the effect of sociodemographic variables, including age, gender, work experience, religious background and behavior, on the impact of the same course on the same student responses. Methods: A battery of items were administered to 73 pharmacy students at a Christian-oriented university. Professionalism was assessed using 25 items adapted from an instrument developed by Hammer, Mason, Chalmers, Popovich, and Rupp (2000). Religious background and behavior was assessed using 3 items developed by Connors, Tonigan, and Miller (1996). Social desirability was assessed using 10 items developed by Strahan and Gerbasi (1972). Relationships were tested between the pre- and post-course scores using ANOVAs and paired t-tests. Results: There were statistically significant improvements on responses for all four domains of professionalism, i.e., interpersonal/social skills, responsibility, communication skills, and appearance. Furthermore, frequency of reading the Bible and chapel attendance were each shown to have a moderating effect on all these improvements except for appearance. Results also suggest that these first year students were inclined to respond in a socially desirable fashion. Implications: Observing professional behaviors (e.g., during early clinical rotations) and religious behaviors (i.e., during Bible study and/or chapel), will be needed to control for response bias. These yearly assessments will also need to be expanded to evaluate the impact of second and third year professionalism courses.

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