Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished ManuscriptAbstract: Over the past 10 years, various adolescent substance abuse and prevention researchers have called for specific lines of empirical inquiry. One such call includes an increase in research on substance use among rural adolescents, including assessing the validity of the drug-sequencing hypothesis outlined in Kandel's Stage Theory for this sub-population. Other researchers have argued for determining if risk factors for various aspects of adolescent drug use, including initiation, are drug-specific or universal in kind and saliency. An emphasis also has been placed on the concept of developmental contextualism, with researchers promulgating the need to determine whether risk factors vary in kind or saliency according to different stages of adolescent development.
This presentation serves as a synopsis of proposed dissertation research designed to answer each of these respective calls and address gaps in the literature. Specifically, an empirical test of Kandel's drug sequencing hypothesis and a comprehensive quantitative examination of predictors of adolescent soft drug initiation is proposed. Of particular interest is determining whether risk factors are drug-specific, and if they differ in kind and saliency by stage of adolescent development. Data is derived from the 2004 Primary Prevention Awareness, Attitude, and Use Survey (PPAAUS), a tri-annual cross-sectional survey administered to 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students in a rural Pennsylvania school district. Discussion will center on the research questions, hypotheses, and associated statistical models proposed. A dual cross-validation scheme designed to assess the stability of quantitative findings also will be presented and discussed in terms of underlying rationale and methodology.
Publication Type: Research PaperReview Method: Peer ReviewedAbstract: Drawing on a novel dataset documenting the founding date of 15,000 universities worldwide, I investigate factors associated with foundings by sector. I find that public sector foundings are associated with demographic growth and government spending, while private sector foundings increase dramatically after 1990, and reflect economic growth and democratization.
Publication Type: Individual PaperReview Method: Peer ReviewedAbstract: The most recent nationwide survey indicates that 17.7 percent of college women have experienced at least one instance of unwanted sexual touching while in college (Cantor et al., 2015). Further, data from our study of a state university suggests a considerably higher incidence of 33 percent. Researchers tend to focus on serious forms of sexual assault like rape while incapacitated by drugs or alcohol (Waters and Waters, 2016) or forcible/attempted rape (Waters and Waters, 2017) for identifying risk factors or testing various theories of victimization. This study attempts to remedy this deficiency by testing whether victims’ level of self-control, lifestyles, opportunities, previous victimization, and demographic characteristics, are significant predictors of unwanted touching of college women. Data for the study includes a survey administered to the entire student population of a Midwestern university with an enrollment of approximately 8,600 students. Analytic strategies include binary logistic regression analysis and discriminant analysis. Findings are discussed in light of criminological theory and policy recommendations.
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished ManuscriptReview Method: Peer ReviewedAbstract: This study aims to extend research related to the primary prevention of substance use among high-risk adolescents by examining whether teacher delivery skills help explain differential effects between substance using and non-using adolescents who participate in All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Participants were 48 teachers who taught in a large urban school district, and their respective 7th grade students (n=756). Overall, students who used substances reported significant improvements in program mediators, including normative beliefs and commitment, and marginally significant improvements in lifestyle incongruence. Two delivery skill factorsclassroom management and student-centered methodswere associated with different outcomes for both groups of students. Specifically, teachers classroom management skills were marginally related to decreases in students personal and public commitments to not use drugs for non-substance using students, as well as improvements in norms for substance users. Student-centered teaching methods predicted improvements in lifestyle incongruence (ideals) and parental attentiveness, and marginally predicted improvements in commitment and bonding, but only for students who had used substances. These methods also predicted declines for parental attentiveness for non-substance using students. Study results suggest that primary prevention programs can be effective for substance using adolescents, especially if taught by interactive teachers.